Country Profile, The Land and People
150 million (estimate)
Three-tier structure – A Federal Government, 36 State Governments, 774 Local Government Administrations
Main Indigenous Languages:
Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba
Christianity, Islam, Traditional
Main Commercial/Industrial Cities:
Lagos, Onitsha, Kano, Ibadan, Port Harcourt, Aba, Maiduguri, Jos, Kaduna, Warri, Benin, Nnewi
Major Industrial Complexes:
Refineries and Petrochemicals: Kaduna, Warri, Port Harcourt, Eleme. Iron and Steel: Ajaokuta, Warri, Oshogbo, Katsina, Jos. Fertilizer: Onne- Port Harcourt, Kaduna, Minna, Kano Liquified Natural Gas: Bonny Aluminium Smelter: Ikot Abasi, Port Harcourt
Lagos (Apapa, Tin-can Island), Warri, Port Harcourt, Onne Deep Sea and Hub Port, Calabar (EPZ)
Lagos, Kano, Port Harcourt, Abuja, Enugu, Kaduna, Maiduguri, Ilorin, Jos, Owerri, Calabar, Yola, Sokoto
Over 15,000 km of intercity all-weather paved roads, including dual carriage express trunks.
2 main lines (South-West to North-East; South-East to North-West) inter-linked and terminatory at Lagos, Port Harcourt, Kaura Namoda, Maiduguri, and Nguru. Major junctions at Kaduna, Kafanchan, Zaria. Gauge: 1067mm; Total length 3505 route km.
Hydro-electric: Kainji, Jebba, Shiroro. Thermal and Gas: Egbin (Lagos), Ughelli, Afam, Sapele, National grid for electricity distribution; National pipeline network with regional depots for petroleum products distribution; National network (pipeline) for distribution of gas (under construction)
NAIRA and KOBO N1.00 = l00k (one naira = hundred kobos)
Nigeria is situated in the West African region and lies between longitudes 3 degrees and 14 degrees and latitudes 4 degrees and 140 degrees. It has a landmass of 923,768 sq. km.. It is bordered to the north by the
Republics of Niger and Tchad. It shares borders to the west with the Republic of Benin, while the Republic of Cameroun shares the eastern borders right down to the shores of the Atlantic Ocean which forms the southern limits of Nigerian Territory. The about 800km of coastline confers on the country the potentials of maritime power. The land is in abundance in Nigeria for agricultural, industrial and commercial activities.
Temperatures across the country are relatively high with a very narrow variation in seasonal and diurnal ranges (22-36t). There are two basic seasons; the wet season which lasts from April to October; and the dry season which lasts from November till March. The dry season commences with Harmattan, a dry chilly spell that lasts till February and is associated with lower temperatures, a dusty and hazy atmosphere brought about by the North-Easterly winds blowing from the Arabian peninsular across the Sahara; the second half of the dry season, February – March, is the hottest period of the year when temperatures range from 33 to 38 degrees centigrade. The extremes of the wet season are felt on the southeastern coast where annual rainfall might reach a high of 330cm; while the extremes of the dry season, in aridity and high temperatures, are felt in the Northern third of the country.
In line with the rainfall distribution, a wetter south and a drier northern half, there are two broad vegetation types: Forests and Savanna. There are three variants of each, running as near parallel bands east to west across the country. Forests Savanna Saline water swamp Guinea Savanna Fresh water swamp Sudan Savanna Tropical (high) evergreen Sahel Savanna.
There is also the mountain vegetation of the isolated high plateau regions on the far eastern extremes of the country (Jos, Mambilla, Obudu).
The savanna, especially Guinea and Sudan, are the major grains, grasses, tubers, vegetable and cotton growing regions.
The Tropical evergreen rain forest belt bears timber production and forest development, production of cassava; and plantation growing of fruit trees – citrus, oil palm, cocoa, rubber, among others.
Nigeria is famous for its huge population of about 150 million people – the largest national population on the African continent. This population is made up of about 374 pure ethnic stocks. Three of them, Hausa, Ibo, and Yoruba are the major groups and constitute over 40 percent of the population. In fact, about 10 ethnic linguistic groups constitute more than 80% of the population: the other large groups are Tiv, Ibibio, Ijaw, Kanuri, Nupe, Gwari, Igala, Jukun, Idoma, Fulani, Edo, Urhobo, and Ijaw. The gender divide of Nigeria’s population, as indicated by the last census in 1991, reflects an unusual in-balance in favour of male dominance; 51% male: 49% female.
However, the more critical population indices concern
- High growth rate – 3.2%; this is affected by decreased infant mortality and high fertility.
- High school-age population – over 47% are 15 years and below
- The high child dependency ratio – one dependent to one worker for the working-age group 25-65.
- Large workforce – working-age group 15-59 is over 40 percent of the population.
Due to a massive expansion in the education sector in the last two decades, the coloration and quality of the Nigerian workforce have changed to include a large corps of highly trained personnel in mechanical, civil, electrical, electronics, chemical, and petroleum engineering and biotechnics. There are at present over 30 Federal and State Universities, some of them specialist -Technology and Agriculture. In addition, there are at least 20 Federal and State Polytechnics. Over 70,000 graduates in various disciplines from these institutions every year. Disciplines, apart from pure sciences, engineering and technologies, include social sciences, business studies (management, banking, and finance), architecture, environment, and urban management studies. Also, a sizeable Nigerian population has been and is being trained outside the country, in some of the best colleges in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, France, Russia, Japan, and China.
Every year, about 2,000 of these Nigerians return home to seek employment or accommodation within the economy.
For the less skilled and unskilled labour, the country depends on the primary and secondary school systems whose annual enrolments are over 3.5 million and 1.5 million, respectively.
AGRICULTURAL, MINERAL, AND MARINE
Nigeria, in addition to its huge population, is endowed with significant agricultural, mineral, marine, and forest resources. Its multiple vegetation zones, plentiful rain, surface water, and underground water resources, and moderate climatic extremes allow for the production of diverse food and cash crops. Over 60 percent of the population is involved in the production of the food crops such as cassava, maize, rice, yams, various beans and legumes, soya, sorghum, ginger, onions, tomatoes, melons, and vegetables. The main cash crops are cocoa, cotton, groundnuts, oil palm, and rubber. Extractions from these for export and local industrial use include cocoa flour and butter, rubber crumb, vegetable oil, cotton fiber, and yarn. The rain forests have been well exploited for timber and wood products of exotic and popular species.
Oil and Gas, by value, are the most important minerals. They are exploited and produced in the Niger Delta basin and off-shore on the continental shelf and in the deep-sea of the territorial waters. Nevertheless, there are significant non-oil mineral deposits on land many of which have been identified and evaluated: coal, iron ore, gypsum, kaolin, phosphates, limestone, marble, columbine, baryte, and gold.
The Federal Republic of Nigeria consists of thirty-six states, and the administrative headquarters and the capital city is Abuja located in the Federal Capital Territory, which is geographically situated in the middle of the country.
Effective participation in governance by all adults is assured through the sharing of powers, revenue, and responsibilities between the three tiers of government, i.e. the Federal Government, the State Governments and the various Local and Municipal Councils of the federation.
With a population of over 120 million people, Nigeria is obviously the largest market in sub-Saharan Africa with reasonably skilled and potential manpower for the efficient and effective management of investment projects within the country. It is well connected by a wide network of motorable all-season roads, railway tracks, inland waterways, maritime and air transportation.
Nigeria’s economy could be aptly described as most promising. It is a mixed economy and accommodates all corners, individuals, corporate organizations, and government agencies, to invest in almost all range of economic activities. Since 1995, the Government has introduced some bold economic measures, which have had a salutary effect on the economy by halting the declining growth in the productive sectors and putting a stop to galloping inflation; they have reduced the debt burden, stabilized the exchange rate of the Naira and corrected the balance of payments disequilibrium.
In the 1995 and 1996 budgets, Government put in place some fiscal measures, which addressed the exchange rate regime and the capital flight issue, which hitherto inhibited project planning and execution. The policy of expanded production through guided deregulation paid off in 1996 when the economy recorded a real growth of 3.2% of GDP The rate of inflation declined appreciably from the high seventies to the low twenties.
Prior to 1999, the major problem of the health sector in Nigeria was identified to be the mortality rate among women and children due to preventable diseases, undernourishment, communication of under five years, as well as inadequate and decaying health facilities. These problems were further compounded, over the years, by inadequate funding, due to competing needs of other sectors such as education, housing, agriculture, etc.
However, each successful Administration usually rises to the occasion to stem the tide. The National Program on Immunization was established to take care of the high mortality rate among children and eradicate communicable and vaccine-preventable diseases, and it has been highly successful. Specific days of the year have been set aside by the Government, during which health officials go from house to house to immunize children against major childhood diseases. Moreover, immunizations are readily available at various hospitals and health centers, at no cost to parents. The Government is being assisted in this regard by many Non-Governmental Organizations and International Agencies. The Rotary International, for example, has committed millions of dollars to the project known as the “Kick Polio out of Africa” campaign, the positive result of which has been tremendous.
Other measures the Government has taken to enhance the quality of health of Nigerians are the establishment of the National Action Committee on Aids (NACA) to combat the HIV/AIDS scourge, the National Foods and Drugs Administration Commission (NAFDAC) which has brought international recognition to Nigeria. The Government has equally set up the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) which is designed to make health care affordable for all citizens by making everyone contribute to the health care system, instead of putting the whole burden on the Government, as is the case currently. The scheme will soon be operational.
To sustain improvements in health care delivery, attention is being paid to the expansion and strengthening of the primary health care system throughout the country. Family and reproductive health services are being strengthened, with particular emphasis on fighting HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases, as well as malaria. Rehabilitation of strategic Teaching and Specialist Hospitals is also ongoing.
Nigeria’s current industrial policy thrust is anchored on a guided dc-regulation of the economy and Government’s disengagement from activities that are private-sector oriented, leaving the Government to play the role of facilitator, concentrating on the provision of incentives policy and infrastructure that are necessary to enhance the private sector’s role as the engine of growth. The industrial policy is intended to:
- generate productive employment and raise productivity;
- increase export of locally manufactured goods;
- create a wider geographical dispersal of industries;
- improve the technical skills and capability available in the country;
- increase the local content of industrial output by looking inward for the supply of basic and intermediate inputs;
- attract direct foreign investment;
- increase private sector participation.
The Nigerian Enterprises Promotion Acts which hitherto regulated the extent and limits of foreign participation in diverse sectors of the economy were repealed in 1995. The principal laws regulating foreign investments now are, the Nigerian Investment Promotion Commission Decree and the Foreign Exchange (Monitoring and Miscellaneous Provisions) Decree, both enacted in 1995.
Given the need to stabilize the banking and finance sectors, and promote confidence in these vital institutions, the Failed Banks (Recovery of Debts) and Financial Malpractices in Banks decrees of 1994 were put in place. The Investment and Securities Decree was also promulgated to update and consolidate capital market laws and regulations into a single code.
Under the Privatisation and Commercialisation law of 1988, the government successfully sold its holdings in industrial enterprises and financial institutions, and such divestments were made by way of “Offers for Sale” on the floors of the Exchange so that ultimate shareholdings in such enterprises could be widespread. However, the government retained full control of the public utility service corporations.
The 1997 Budget proposed the repeal of all existing laws that inhibit competition in certain sectors of the Nigerian economy. Consequently, with the promulgation of the Public Enterprises Promotion and Commercialisation Decree in 1998, private sector investors (including non-Nigerians) will now be free to participate in and compete with government-owned public utility service corporations in the areas of telecommunications, electricity generation, exploration of petroleum, export refineries, coal and bitumen exploration, hotel and tourism.
As a policy objective, the liberalization and deregulation of the exchange control regime are designed to facilitate and enhance trading activities. Items on the import prohibition list have been drastically reduced, with the government opting to utilize tariff structures to protect end-user product pricing of local industries and discourage frivolous imports. In 1998, the import prohibition list was reduced to 11 items namely: maize, sorghum, millet, wheat flour, vegetable oils (excluding linseed and castor oils used as industrial raw materials), barytes and bentonites, gypsum, mosquito repellent coils, domestic articles and wares made of plastic materials (excluding babies’ feeding bottles), retreaded/used tyers, gaming machines.